Fully agree with Tim! And also appreciate the perspective he brings to it in terms of the 600 out of 316 million. If you're going to worry about something, worry about Death By Sunshine! After all, there are close to 13,000 of those each year, and those are actual *deaths* -- not just instances of the problem. Even if we just stick to malignant melanoma (the most deadly kind of Sunshine Death) we're talking about 76,000 US cases/year. See: Skin Cancer FactsCorrective addition: Whoops! Pulling the trigger on those statistical six-guns can be tricky sometimes! While my general point is valid, I think I fell into an error: The enterovirus d68 count is just from mid August to early October, while my melanoma figures span a full year. Plus the E68 is on an upswing which could conceivably become quite widespread and infect millions. For the moment though, I think your real enemy is that big burny thing in the sky! Let's all live in tunnels! :>MJM
Yes. EV-D68 was discovered in California in 1962 and there were outbreaks in 3 states a few years ago so it's a proud to be Made In America virus. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/...
Is it possible when you have a bacterial throat infection that your tongue and gums act up?
You might have an enterovirus like coxsakie A virus (hand, foot, mouth disease) or echovirus, or herpangina... Herpangina starts with sore throat - can have a fever, cough or runny nose. Sores can start on the throat and can progress into the oral cavity (mouth) but doesn't commonly affect the tongue. Hand, foot, mouth can affect the tongue but of course you would also usually get sores on the hands and feet (hence the name). Chances are what you have is a viral infection. Penicillin only works against bacteria - not viruses. However, if you had a virus infection that got a secondary infection with bacteria you may get some relief from the penicillin. If you have had the sores on your tongue before or if they have been on your cheeks before (and are very painful) they may be canker sores (also known as apthous ulcerations). It isn't clear what causes canker sores but they are thought to be from a local (confined) hyped up immune response. So, if you had a allergy to a spice or food, or if you had a hyperimmune response to the viral infection ... it could trigger the canker sores. If you have never had those types of sores before then it is probably not aphthous ulcer (on your tongue) and is probably from a virus. Long story short - you probably had a mixed bacterial/viral infection. Rinse gently with warm salt-water and spit it out. Finish the antibiotic completely. If the sores don't go away or come back go see a dentist (they take classes in this kind of stuff). If you use mouthwash, dilute it half/half with water. Last, keep your teeth and gums very clean. Food and extra bacteria make a lot of plaque on your teeth. The plaque acts like a reservoir for infectious bacteria. Brushing 2-3 times a day gently and flossing 3-5x/week will help keep that down. DO NOT RINSE WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. IF YOU HAD ORAL SEX RECENTLY HAD CONRACTED AN STD YOU NEED TO INFORM YOUR DOCTOR. Hope this helps!
Coxsackieviruses are named after Coxsackie, New York where the first samples came from.They are Baltimore Group IV: positive sense single stranded RNA viruses. Coxsackieviruses are part of the Picornaviridae family of viruses in the genus Enterovirus, this includes polioviruses, echoviruses and hepatitis AThey were discovered in 1948–49 by Dr. Gilbert Dalldorf, who was looking for viruses related to polio, but without the pathogenicity the intention was to see if they could be developed as a vaccine to provide cross protection against polio (as cow pox protected against smallpox) . That idea was not developed further.Most coxsackievirus infections aren't serious. They typically cause only mild flu like signs and symptoms and a rash: Hand, Foot, and Mouth DiseaseIn rare cases, a child infected with coxsackievirus can develop a severe illness that may require hospitalization. Most cases are mild uncomplicated and resolve within a week or so, though there is good evidence that the virus may be a possible cause of type 1 diabetes.More information:Coxsackievirus Symptoms, Treatment, Causes - What is a coxsackievirus? - MedicineNetBackground, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyNew evidence for role of specific virus causing type 1 diabetesEnterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes
Yes and no. Gene synthesis is very common today in the research world, costing around 25 cents a basepair. Input any sequence (A, T, C, G) to a provider, and they can give you the sequence back in a plasmid. Depending on the type of virus, making the new virus could be as simple as transfecting the plasmid inside mammalian cells. For certain RNA viruses, one can transcribe the synthesized DNA in vitro with T7 RNA polymerase, and then transfect in RNA inside cells to start a replication cycle. In either version, recovery of full infectious virions is possible. Hepatitis B virus is an example, and protocols for recovering many other viruses from DNA plasmids are available in the literature. It can be a simple process.So now, here is the "no" part of the question. There is a US law against gene synthesis that can create an infectious agent (Gene Synthesis Companies Pledge to Foil Bioterrorists). During gene synthesis requests, researchers have to verify that the sequence being synthesized is not an infectious pathogen. If it is, your request will be rejected by the company, and one could get in trouble and have possible ensuing legal repercussions. So the premise of the original question, while it is possible, the act is actually banned in the United States by gene synthesis company self-mandate and in compliance with US law (More information here: http://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/...).
Over 200 viruses have been isolated from patients with upper respiratory tract infections, several of which could be involved in said infection. Rhinovirus is the most common culprit, but influenza viruses, coronavirus and enteroviruses can also be involved (among others).At least one of them (enterovirus) is passed along through the fecal-oral route. Some others don't even survive long in normal conditions and would "die" in stomach acids.Sources:Upper respiratory tract infectionEnterovirus
The term “modern polio” is extremely unfortunate. There have been some sporadic cases of a disease caused by an enterovirus (a gut virus, which is what polio is) that produces symptoms that resemble those of polio. However, this is a completely different virus. If you think for a minute how many different viruses cause fever, chills and coughing, or perhaps fever, exhaustion and vomiting, you can see why referring to this as AFM is better than using the term “polio-like”. Sadly a number of viruses cause these sorts of symptoms and these outbreaks may not be all due to the same cause.A reason for the outbreak? Viruses are always mutating, hitching rides on animals, mutating into something that can infect humans, and then disappearing or perhaps causing a major pandemic. This is why public health departments are constantly monitoring infectious disease.But please, not “modern polio,” for two reasons: first your polio vaccine protects you from polio, but not every virus that cause paralysis. The polio vaccine doesn’t work on this new virus (or group of viruses). Second, antivaxxers are using this to mislead the public into thinking polio is making a comeback in the US and that the polio vaccine has not been able to prevent this. This is not true. If AFM turns into serious problem, misinformation and confusion will not help our efforts to eradicate it.The beauty and limitations of vaccination come from the specificity of the adaptive response to the vaccine. You may get some cross protection with pathogens that are closely related, but basically you need to develop a vaccine for every individual disease and sometimes for every individual strain of a disease. This is what prevents us from developing a vaccine against the common cold or why we have to take a flu shot every year to immunize us against the current specific strain.