What was Project Paperclip? Should the German scientists be credited for all the space science of NASA?
Project Paperclip was the US acquisition of top-notch German scientists and engineers, following the Nazi defeat in World War II. During World War II, the Nazi engineers, led by Wernher von Braun, had developed the V2 rocket, the world's first long-range ballistic missile. Needless to say, we were impressed. We took many of their best scientists and brought them to America, where they soon developed more of their missiles for us, and when the Space Race with the USSR begin, developed rockets for spacecraft. To answer your question, no, not at all. First off, many of them became American citizens, such as von Braun, who quickly adapted into the Huntsville, Alabama community at Marshal Space Flight Center. Also, after the Space Race began, countless American-born citizens worked developing the aerospace technology for NASA. It was not just the German [American] scientists. We have to thank them for a lot of things: they were genius and they kickstarted the space program. But no! It was an entire nation that supported NASA or worked for NASA! Not just the Germans from Project Paperclip.
Is it true former Nazi scientists helped found NASA?
No they were used for their expertness in rocket building namely "Werner Von Braun" he was considered one of the best if not the best rocket engineer in the world then.
Why did America need Wernher von Braun (Nazi scientist) launching the Saturn V rocket ?
At the end of WW2, German scientists dreaded being captured by the Soviets. They organized "Operation Paper Clip" to surrender to American forces with as much scientific information possible. A number of German scientists were captured by the Soviets. But the phrase "Our Germans are better than your Germans" does not ring true at all. Americans exploited the German scientists and the captured rockets. So did the Soviets- with much less. In contrast to the Americans, the Soviets did not directly employ Germans for their rocketry- they were merely used as consultants, while the real Soviet rocket program was headed by Sergei Korolev. Korolev was an organizer of a Russian rocket society called GIRD (Group for the Investigation of Rocket Dynamics) in the 1930's, while Von Braun had a similar group in Germany. The difference is that the Germans had a subscription to Robert Goddard's patents and drew heavily from these. From the late 40s to the late 50s, the Soviets had a very progressive rocketry program, launching dogs on sub-orbital flights and developing the R-7 rocket --- still the basic rocket, though modified, behind the Soyuz. Von Braun was a great genius, and the early failures were not his- the Vanguard explosion, etc. It turned out that Von Braun had the capabilities of launching a satellite before Sputnik but was never given the green light. The Soviets were beating the pants off the US until Kruschev started putting propaganda ahead of practicality. He stuffed 3 men inside a capsule intended for 1, Leonov nearly died on his spacewalk, and they got more and more reckless. The Americans, on the other hand, developed a very systematic series of flights and programs designed for a Lunar Landing. Korolev's death sealed the fate of the Soviet hope to reach the Moon. His successors did not have his genius or leadership ability. Had Korolev lived, the Soviets may have beat America to the Moon in a flyby, but a manned landing attempt would have failed. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, an awful lot of secrets were let out, and Americans even saw the prototype lunar lander.
What happened to the German scientists and their work after WWII?
Executed? Work burned? Au contraire! They were hired! Everybody here rightly refers to Wernher von Braun. An excellent example, though there were thousands of other, less prominent Germans who trod the same path.Von Braun was the chief designer of the German A-4 (V-2) rocket. He, with his team of engineers & physicists, surrendered to the US army, & were taken to the USA in 1945, with all the documents they'd saved. They designed & built the rocket which put the first US satellite into space. One of his colleagues was the first director of the Kennedy Space Center. Von Braun was in charge of the development of the rockets for the US space programme until 1970. The first moon landing used a rocket developed under his leadership.The USSR captured as many German rocket scientists as it could, & there were jokes back in those days about the relative success of US & Soviet space programmes being because "our Germans are better than their Germans".As Alexander says, much the same happened to other German experts. The Allies were very interested in everything they knew & could do, & at the end of the war had teams scouring Germany for German scientists & engineers, the things they had produced, & their documents. Many worked as prisoners, in effect (though well-treated prisoners) immediately after the war, later being freed but carrying on the same jobs.
Why do Europeans thinks they are smarter than Americans?
Lets take your 4 examples. The Wright Brothers took work done around the world, built their own lightweight engine and worked out wing warping for control. The did'nt "invent" the aircraft. They developed a better one. The first one to fly under it`s own power. Good Job. The Atomic Bomb was a conjoined effort between American Scientists who had hit a brick wall on developing an atomic pile and British Scientists who pooled all their knowledge to make crucial breakthroughs. NASA put the first men on the moon. Correct. take a look at the top scientists at NASA during the 1960`s and see how many were German. A majority of the brains behind Gemini, Friendship and Appolo were German scientists captured at the end of the Second World War. Americans invented the Internet? The man credited with inventing the internet was Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA. He was born in London in 1955. Last time I looked London was in England. That would make him ENGLISH. Now as much as I, as an Englishman, detest being called European, I would be hard pushed to classify him as an American. OK now I have disposed of your claims that Americans invented everything I would like you to take a look at any or all of my previous answers and see where I have spewed Anti American "Hatetred". (spelling mistakes don`t help with trying to convince everyone of your superiority) I have nothing against any person from any nation purely for their nationality. I object to certain people because of their actions whether they be British, European, Asian or from the Americas. My true hatred for people is for their ignorance. It is not a sin to be ignorant but it is a sin to refuse to have your ignorance enlightened. Ray.
If the Nazis won World War 2, would there have been a space race between Nazi Germany, the U.S., and Russia, in between just Nazi Germany and the U.S. or in between just Nazi Germany and Russia?
There is an old joke that was popular at NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL), and within the military/science community during the Cold War when it came to discussing the Russians—-“Our German space program beat your German space program”. As it implied, many thought of the “space race” as merely a German space program operating from the US and Russia (the head of NASA’s space program was a former Nazi scientist who headed, among others, the V-2 program, Werner von Braun). Some of the projects brought with them included next generation production of all types of military hardware, including stealth fighters and bombers, cruise missiles, tank design, etc.In terms of technology, Germany was about 15 or 20 years ahead of the US and Russia. Luckily for us, many of Germany’s top researchers and scientists left Germany prior to the start of the war (mainly in the late 1930’s) since they were Jewish. Most went first to England, and then later came to America. A few went to neutral Switzerland or Sweden.Towards the very end of the war, both the US (and British) and Russians were making a made dash to capture an many of the German “wonder weapons” as possible. This included their scientists, engineers, medical doctors and researchers, technical designers, and technicians. Fortunately, most wanted—-and tried—-to escape to the West, and eventually came to America under “Operation Paperclip” as well as some other programs (which included key individuals from the Wehrmacht’s intelligence agency, the Abwehr, and the SS’s SD division.However, the US didn’t get them all. Russia managed to capture around a 100 or so (maybe more). Many of these were lower tier scientists, engineers, etc, but no less brilliant. Several of the secret R&D sites fell within the Russian zone of occupation too.So, in terms of a postwar space program, I think it would have been all Germany. Besides, as we discovered at the end of the war, Germany was beginning work on a long distance bomber which could reach the US and return. They are also very close to having a working nuclear bomb. Had the succeed, I have no doubt they would have used it on Russia and possibly on the US, in which case, we would be years or even decades behind. Who knows, perhaps they would have even helped the Japanese with this too. Can you imagine Japan having the bomb instead of us?
Where did the Nazi rocket scientists go after WWII?
Huntsville Alabama. Werner Von Braun led the majority of his V2 Peenemunde team to surrender to the US in the closing days of the warAs part of Operation Paperclip, Von Braun and more than a thousand German rocket scientisrs were tranported to the US, initially to Fort Bliss/White Sands were they were essentially prisoners. They were not allowed to leave post without a military escort.In 1950 Von Braun and his team were transfered to Huntsville Al where most remained for the remainder of theit lives working at nearby Redstone Arsenal first for the Army and later for NASA. Von Braun became a local hero for his work on the Apollo project and as NASA director as well as his (in conjunction w his fellow Germans) cultural contributions among them a land trust, an observatory and the Huntsville SymphonyLast it is commonly believed that Stanley Kubrick's Dr Strangelove character was a least partially based on Von Braun
Why did Germany have more advanced rockets in WW II than America, if Robert Goddard is the "father of rocketry"?
Dr. Robert Goddard made extraordinary contributions to missilery and space flight with patents as early as 1914. He is considered the father of modern rocket propulsion. Although Wernher Von Braun made significant contributions to rocket technology, he was just an infant at this time (born in 1912) and we can only imagine he learned much from the earlier works of Goddard. He was the leader of the team developing the V-2 missle for the Nazis during World War II and later worked for NASA in the USA after Operation Paperclip provided employment in the aftermath of the war. Although he is referred to as the "father of space travel" and his accomplishments cannot be taken away from him, there is a dark side of the story that is not usually so highly publicized. Some say that more people in Nazi concentration camps died building the V-2 than did from its use.Another pioneer, not yet mentioned, is Russian Tsiolkovsky, who even earlier than Goddard had developed formulas for liquid oxygen/hydrogen powered rockets. The governments did not pay much attention to the scientific rocket development until World War II was in full swing. The contributions of many with respect to military as well as space development of rockets was not fully recognized until the activities of World War II and later.