What key developments separated the modern era from the fifteenth century?
from memory the advent of modern military technology, especially the perfection of the cannon, also revolutions, the downfall (legally) of the roman/byzantine empire with the fall of constantinople to the ottomans (cannon involved). i say legally because it had long collapsed as an economic and military empire. scientific discoveries as well and expansion of empire, discovery of 'new' worlds etc. start by researching some definitions of what is "modern history" and "early modern history" - that will give you a push start. Oh and don't forget the arts (Da Vinci) and science (Galileo). Oh and Michael B, ever heard of the "Silk Road"? Existed at least since the 1st century and and the Chinese were well aware of Europeans and vice versa. whocares, having studied academic history myself, it is a crucial error in judgement to assume major changes in world history are due to a singular obsession. There are many reasons why we have the term "Modern History" and they are all as important as the other.
Why did China not develop during its communist era like the USSR did?
When you ask this question, it shows you do not have knowledge about Chinese history after 1949. From 1949 to 1979, China was an revolution-crazed country with intention to turn everything upside down and also was forever preparing for war with just about any one. Economic development was not on the list at all. During 1966 to 1976 the Great Cultural Revolution, the country in effect ceased to function with all schools disbanded and factories workers spend most time in political activities. basically the country went from one ideological turmoil to another for the whole of 30 years.
Holy Roman Empire Trade/Technology?
The Holy Roman Empire replaced into on no account a Superpower simply by fact it replaced into on no account united as a single state. you need to examine it with NATO, the Emperor replaced into the top, in simple terms simply by fact the U. S. President is the powerful head of NATO, yet he ought to not in simple terms call for all people else accompanied his classes. unlike NATO the HRE had plenty inner wars, on occasion against the Emperor himself. Germany replaced into divided into maximum of petty territories that the maps make in simple terms approximately works of precis paintings. the capacity of any particular Emperor depended upon his wider immediately ruled territories, to that end Charles V is generally known simply by fact the main mandatory Emperor simply by fact his own holdings secure not in basic terms Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Moravia, yet additionally Spain and its Latin American Territories, the dominion of Sicily and Naples, great factors of northern Italy, and distinctive different territories. With that a lot capacity to call on he ought to be predicted to have significant impression and yet he ought to not stay away from the German princes figuring out on the religion of the countless territories. you need to examine the divisions over faith to those interior america of a over Slavery, yet of direction the top result replaced into fairly distinctive. The Confederacy replaced into compelled returned into the Union, whilst the German Protestant states, extraordinarily Prussia persisted to advance till the Empire fell under its sway. After the Reformation the HRE existed greater as an concept than a actuality.
How did technological development shape human history from 12,000 bc to 15 century?
Stone age, bronze age, iron age, religious documents from 1000 BCE as the Pentatouche, the various religious text and history of the Jews, the writings of Buddha (500 BCE) the writings of Sun Tzu (the art of war, 450 BCE), thru the bible's New Testament up to around 120 AD.
In 1500, why did the native american people lack development in technology & society that the Europeans had?
Well, there was a sizable difference in the resources available to the Europeans, and to the Native Americans. In Europe, we see the use of iron, a hard metal that could be fashioned into tools and weapons. In addition, we see the use of oxen, cattle, and horses, large animals that were were easily domesticated ion population. However, the same cannot be said for the Americas. In terms of North America, what we see is the appearance of bison, which were driven close to extinction. Yes, these were large mammals, but alas, they were unable to be domesticated for agricultural use. For a better example, it might be more important to focus on Latin America, and South America. To be more specific, let's take a look at the Aztec civilization. The Aztec civilization was a large empire based in modern Mexico. With the Arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors, the Aztec civilization declined, crumbling before the Spaniard's use of steel, armor and cavalry, and most importantly: the firearm. During this conquest, the Spaniards were fascinated by the abundance of gold in the region, this was due to the fact that gold was very commons in the region. In terms of animal transport, the only animal available to the Aztecs was the llama, which was, not as useful or as large a horse. Although they could perform some tasks, they weren't exactly battle ready In short, the main reason for European superiority technology-wise was due to the availability of resources, and the lack of isolation from other nations. Through trade, interaction, war, and experience, the European continent was able to expand on its technological innovation, eventually allowing it to conquer what it would call The New World. Hmm, sorry if it feels a tad off, it's been a few years since I've taken an athro class. But I think it's pretty accurate
What makes the early modern period modern? What characteristics of modernity does it have?
The Medieval period, in Europe and countries surrounding the Mediterranean, was a frustration of limitations. The Early Modern saw an overcoming of those, through the following:Age of Discovery - Better navigation techniques and funding sparked the discoveries. New lands meant new battlegrounds, but it meant the relentless cycle of wars on European soil was on the decline. These soon brought in plunder allowing everything to flourishCapitalism - new financial instruments, exchanges and funding mechanisms were invented allowing for better capital for enterprises, including art which we’re probably best aware of. States got in on the act starting with mercantilism which cut away the reliance on the Church and zero-sum wars of conquest.Technology - Its arguable if land warfare had changed meaningfully in the preceding 5000 years. Formations of men charged or defended or besieged with sharp weapons and some changes involving horses, siege engines and armour. The firearm changed all of that - you could kill the enemy from a distance - and it came into general use around the seventeenth century.Religion - the Protestant Reformation ended overall Catholic dominance.; even many Byzantines considered Islam as an option. It seem that the Papacy had real existential problems over intrigues.Decline of Empires - Constantinople had fallen in 1483 and with that constant unproductive bickering over who had the right to call themselves “Roman”. The Ottomans began to decline as the focus was on the New World, not the land route to Asia. The Moors were expelled from Spain having declined there for about 200 years. The Holy Roman Empire lost much power over the Reformation, where Princes seized an opportunity to escape Papal oversight.The Early Modern was more a breakaway from the Middle Ages than a series of new human events which can be seen to constitute a change in consciousness.The Late Modern period, is that.
What influenced the development of ancient China?
Like the Nile River in Ancient Egypt or the Tigris Euphrates in Sumeria or the Ganges River in India,the Yellow River and the Yangtze River influenced the development of the early civilization of China.The Rivers flooded the plains receiving thus nutrients from the mountains rendering the land fertile to make possible the growing of crops for food making it possible for the early Hans to abandon nomadic life and founded the first settlements and early governments and thus civilization was born.River bred life to people and it was a fast conduit for the trade of produce of the land. It also provides mobility for the early military armies to move from one place to another enabling one army to subdue another.And wherever armies go,culture went with it.Thus,it can be said.....civilizations were born out of the Great rivers of the world.
Why did military technology stay the same from Roman times until well after the Medieval period?
Say what?For starters, the Romans didn’t have these:Or these:Or these:Or these:Or these:Or even these:Or, if you’re willing to include the medieval Romans (better known as the Byzantines), these:Basically, despite modern stereotypes, the Middle Ages saw much more technological development than Ancient Rome did and that absolutely included military technology as well. It’s no accident that we see marked advances in armor making and the development of new weapons such as the trebuchet, the English longbow, and Greek fire (all of which are shown above). This is the era that saw the development of the castle and saw fortifications added to warships. This is the era when the stirrup and gunpowder were introduced from Asia.Nor should this be a surprise. It’s rare for a society to be technologically stagnant and it’s just about impossible to be technologically stagnant when your incentives point you towards innovation. Basically, once the Western Roman Empire was gone, the states that emerged from its wreckage were weak and fairly vulnerable to attack. Equally importantly, they didn’t have the organizational skill or the financial resources needed to support a standing army. On top of that, they were constantly dealing with the risk of attacks from each other, from the Muslim kingdoms, the Magyars, the Norse, and, so forth. They had to improve their militaries in order to survive.Case in point, the earliest medieval castle, the wooden motte-and-bailey, dates from the tenth century. They were simply ways for warlords to protect themselves and the towns under their control. Over time, they were replaced by stone fortifications that were much, much bigger and strong than Roman forts were. Advances in castle building spurred improvements in weapons technology - first with improved catapults, like the trebuchet, and eventually with cannon - simply because there was a need to knock down the walls.Similarly, medieval people simply had access to more technology than the Romans did. When the stirrup, for instance, was introduced to Europe in the 6th and 7th century, it enabled medieval cavalry to get heavier and turned the lance into a devastating weapon and eventually led to the armored knight. That encouraged the development of the longbow and the gun to make it easier to kill the armored knight, which led to the development of early modern armies based on pike and shot.That’s hardly technology staying the same.
How has Byzantine culture affected the modern world?
Byzantium?If you ask one of its citizens about "The Byzantine Empire", he or she would probably look at you, confused, and some educated would point out that the Greek Byzantium city state never had an empire.They had only one identity, the Romans. They thought of themselves as the Romans, they were known as the Romans, and they were the undisputed heir to imperial authority. Byzantine was but a word coined much later. Doubts about their Roman identity only rose when Charlemagne wad crowned "Holy Roman Emperor", when people started calling the Eastern Romans "the Greek Empire" to distinguish the two.So don't ask what Byzantium contributed to modern culture. They invented it for Christ sakes. Okay, they themselves may not have invented it as much as their forefathers did, but they preserved it while the west descended to barbarous darkness and fought hard to restore the empire's former glory. When that failed, they held fast against the Muslims and preserved classical knowledge and work. The Byzantines were really the last of the Romans. In the siege of Constantinople the last Roman Emperor fought to the death, a heroic 6000 against 200000, despite Western treachery first sacking and weakening the empire and then refusing to send timely aid.Look at the last of the Eastern empire, and look at the weak Romulus Augustus fleeing from disaster. And you tell me the West were Romans and the East were not?
When did the modern era begin?
I do not have any specific answer but I have some examples of things that might be considered the beginning of a new era.The Renaissance 2. The Enlightenment 3. The American Revolution 3. The Industrial Revolution 4. The American Civil War 5. World War 1 time period,women’s suffrage and the changes in culture,dress and ways of life in the 1920’s 6. World War 2 and the invention of the Atomic bomb 7. The Civil Rights Movement of the 50’s and 60’s 8. Computers,The Internet, 9/11, gadgets of the 21’st century,social mediaI think the modern cultural era has been like a continuing development of all these different steps. I think the The 70’s was the first decade of the contemporary era and since then you could break it up into sub-eras like the early /mid and late 80’s, same for the 90’s and 00’s and 10’s.It is hard to tell because the decades and years blur into each other in so many ways that it is hard to draw exact lines. Also things that were introduced in the 70’s are things we still share now in the late 10’s like Blockbuster films such as Star Wars or Jaws or home video or home video games…these were all things that were around in the 70’s that are still part of culture today. I think the early 90’s we crossed a line into something newer that we are still within…although since then we have had many changes and advances also.