How can I type 10 to the 3rd power?
The conventional way to do it here is 10^3. The small 3 you want is called a "superscript". One easy way is to use Microsoft Word. Key in the number you want, then highlight it, go to Format, Font, and select superscript. Then copy it to wherever you want to use it.
When and how did the British monarchy start losing its power? How did the British monarch become the powerless figure head of the present day?
If memory serves from my schooldays in the UK during the 1970s, the monarchy's loss of power can be simplified (oversimplified?) into 5 events:Magna Carta 1215The monarchy basically started losing material power with King John of England signing the Magna Carta , which led to the rule of constitutional law in England. Translation: the beginning of the end of absolutism in royal rule in England. This was just 149 years after the Norman Conquest under William I.English Civil War 1642-51Commonwealth of England/The Protectorate 1651-60The monarchy continued to lose power by turns in the years since Magna Carta, culminating in the English Civil War. The Commonwealth of England (later, the Protectorate for the whole of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland) replaced the monarchy under Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. (We can safely generalise Charles I was a British monarch, even though history books conventionally identify him as "of England.")The Restoration 1660With the end of the Commonwealth/Protectorate in 1658-60, the monarchy was restored under King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. However, Parliament limited Charles II's royal prerogative powers on constitutional grounds that he had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws enacted by Parliament. Translation: further loss of royal power.The Glorious Revolution 1688King James II of England and Ireland (and as James VII of Scotland) was overthrown by Parliamentary forces in a joint operation with Dutch forces under William of Orange, who then became "King Billy": William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (in addition to being Stadtholder of various areas in the Dutch Republic). But during William III's reign (jointly with Mary II), there was resistance to his/their validity to the throne (which is too involved to explain here).United Kingdom 1707-1800 / 1801-1927 / 1921-todayThe most prominent political feature of the UK that diluted the power of the monarchy was the Reform Act 1832 refashioned the British electoral system and extended the franchise. Translation: more power to the people and parliament.There are other important events in between those above, of course, but those are the ones most UK-educated people tend to remember at any given moment.
CHEMISTRY Help: CONVERSIONS?!?!?
Molecules/atoms -> grams Given molecules/atoms x 1 mol/6.022x10^23 molecules/atoms x molar mass/1 mol Molar mass OF2: 1 O x 16 = 16 2 F x 19 = 38 Add them up we get 54 g OF2/mol 1. 3.45x10^18 molecules OF2 x 1 mol OF2/6.022x10^23 molecules OF2 x 54 g OF2/1 mol = 0.000309 g OF2 Scientific notation: 3.09 x 10^-4 g OF2 2. 4.97x10^25 atoms He x 1 mol Fe/6.022x10^23 atoms Fe x 55.85 g Fe/1 mol Fe = 4609.3 = 4610 g Fe SN: 4.610 x 10^3 g Fe Liters -> moles Given liters x 1 mol/22.4 L (ideal gas @ STP) 1. 85.2 L CH4 x 1 mol CH4/22.4 L CH4 = 3.80 mol CH4 2. 3.25 L C3H8 x 1 mol C3H8/22.4 L C3H8 = 0.145 mol C3H8 SN: 1.45 x 10^-1 mol C3H8