In Ontario, Canada it begins getting dark at 4pm during winter. Does this happen in other countries with winter?
Considering that Ontario stretches from 41 to 56 degrees N latitude, I wonder which city you have in mind?I’m going to give you a few examples. Using December 21 (2017) as the shortest day of the year, these are sunrise/sunset hours followed by the day’s length in hours & minutes. A few examples of other cities at the same latitude follow - meaning they have about the same daylength.New York, NY: 40˚N 7:16 a.m. - 4:31 (9h 15m) (Salt Lake City, Naples, Madrid)Toronto, Ontario: 43˚N 7:47 a.m. -16:43 p.m. (8h55m) - so the day is just under 9 hours at 43 degrees latitude on December 21 (Florence, Italy, Marseille, Portland Maine, Sioux Falls)Minneapolis, Minnesota: 44˚N 7:48 a.m. 4:34 p.m. (8h 46m) (Bordeaux, Bologna, Bucharest, Genoa)Portland, Oregon: 45˚N 7:47 a.m. - 16:30 p.m. (8h 42m) (Ottawa, Montreal, Milan, Venice, Turin)Vancouver: 50˚N 8:05 a.m. - 4:16 p.m. (8h 11m) (Brussels, Prague, Kiev, )London, UK: 51˚N 8:03 a.m.-3:53 p.m.(7h 49m) (also Rotterdam, Antwerp, Calgary, Dresden)Glasgow, Scotland, UK: 55˚N 8:45 a.m. - 3:44 p.m. (6h 58m) (Moscow, Copenhagen, Malmö, Novosibirsk)Reykjavik, Iceland: 64˚N 11:22 a.m. 3:29 p.m. (4h 07m) (Fairbanks AK)You can check Sunrise and Sunset Calculator and input the city of interest.The higher the latitude the shorter the days in winter, the longer the days in summer.The closer you are to the equator, the more the days are equal in length - so although winter days are long, many people will notice how short the days are during the summer, how late the day begins and how suddenly the sun sets. In Quito, Ecuador the winter and summer daylength is 12 hours. In Guadalajara Mexico, 20˚N sunrise is 7:25 a.m. sunset is 6:18 p.m. on Dec 21; but on June 21 7:13 to 8:36 (13h 23m), a short summer day by northern standards, eg. London on June 21 has a daylength of 16h 38m; Toronto has 15h 26m).Another way of looking at this is to google cities by their latitude because now you know how it works, so you can see how many other cities lie at the same latitude, further north or further south: for example 174 World cities by latitude: Things line up in surprising ways or List of population centers by latitude - WikipediaNow if you want to know more you may want to look into cloud cover and depth, precipitation and so on to get some idea of why a day may seem shorter than it actually is.
How are sun rises/sets early in some parts and late in others?
The Sun's rising or setting timings are dependent on the apparent position of Sun, obviously. On March 21, Sun is exactly shining over the Earth's equator, known as the day of Vernal Equinox. On this day, the night and day are exactly equal in both northern and southern hemispheres. Note - Direct rays on the EquatorAfter March 21 till June 20 or 22, the Sun moves towards the northern latitudes. So, Sun will rise early in north, and late in South, since it faces the north and is away from the south, causing Summer in north, winter in south. Summer Solstice - 22 June (for northern hemisphere)Note: India is tilted towards the Sun, while south is away. Continuous day in Arctic, night in Antarctic. Direct rays till the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degree N) Then, till September 23, Sun again shifts south, descending from higher northern latitudes and back to the equator, which causes the Autumnal Equinox. On 23 September, the day and night are equal again. Then Till December 22, Sun descends towards the southern latitudes, away from the north, causing summer in south, winter in north, and associated change in timings. December 22 (Winter Solstice for north). Hence, the days are short and nights longer in the north, as here, Sun rises late sets early.Note: India tilted away from Sun's direct rays, while Malaysia getting almost direct sun's rays. Continuous night in Arctic and day in Antarctic. Direct rays till Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees S).After 22 December Sun again rises north, and causes vernal Equinox on 21 March, and brings Spring in north, autumn in south - the cycle repeats. The timings also change with respect to the latitudinal position. There is 6 months of day and 6 months of night in the polar regions, while day and nights are nearly equal along the equator. The revolution of Earth is responsible for the changes in seasons, which is related to the different apparent positions of Sun. It all seems confusing. Take your time to think and visualize. Watch videos related to change of seasons, and Sun's positions in a year.
What is Paris like? How would you describe it to someone who has never been there?
I fell in love with Paris when I first visited the City of Lights over 20 years ago. I have lived in Italy for a period of time, and have travelled to many cities, but Paris has remained my favourite city in the world till today.Paris is simply enchanting.She has an old-world charm and a romantic quality to her that's unsurpassed. Her boulevards are grand and her monuments are, well, monumental. Her architectures are from bygone eras but still stand majestically today. At night, she glows radiantly as buildings and monuments are lighted up. Art and beauty is everywhere and in every detail.Yet, she is a modern and cosmopolitan city and a melting pot of cultures. She is full of contradictions — classic and antiqued, yet fresh and vibrant; severe and traditional, yet liberal and free-spirited; inspiring most of the time, yet exasperating at times; prim and proper yet seductively sexy.Allow Paris to grow on you. Explore every crook and cranny with child-like wonder, and uncover, the secrets of the city.Visit the major monuments and museums — the Louvre, the Eiffel Tower, Orsay Museum, the Tuileries Garden, Sacred Heart, Opera Garnier, Champs Elysees, the Arch of Triumph, Notre Dame, and the countless sights, exhibitions, bridges, cathedrals, markets and spectacles all across the city.But more importantly, don't be afraid to immerse yourself in the every day Parisian life. This is where you will uncover the hidden gems, the true enchantment and beauty of the city.Put on your most comfortable walking shoes and explore neighbourhoods like the Marais, Montmartre and the Latin Quarter; order a chocolat chaud and watch the world go by at a corner table of a corner cafe; walk along the river Seine; pop into a local boulengerie to buy a loaf of bread; enjoy an attempt of a banter with your fellow park-goers at the Luxembourg Garden by saying “Bonjour"; struggle at deciphering the complex network map and take the bus and metro, then realise that the jumble of colourful routes and metro lines are not that complex afterall; observe how pretty the streets can be in the autumn rain, when the lights are reflected in the puddles…Simply allow yourself to be enchanted by Paris and very soon you will realise that you have fallen under her spell.
Why does the Sun rise in the East and set in the West?
Actually, the sun DOES NOT exactly rises in East and sets in West (only in 2 days of the year!) In all other days of the year it rises and sets with a component in North or South Axis (depending on the direction of earth axis relative to the normal of the ecliptic plane) - if you live exactly on north or south pole then it is a degenerated case, though.The total variation in degrees is 46.52 degrees between two extreme directions of the sun set or rise during the year. It does not depend on the latitude of the observer.Make an experiment: take a compass rose and measure the direction of sun set/ sun rise in the following dates: December 21, March 20, June 21, September 21.What you will notice is that in March 20 and September 21 (equinoxes), the sun rises/sets aligned perfectly with east-west axis. But in December 21 and June 21 (solstices) the sun rises/sets with a very significant deviation from east/west (+ or - 23.6 degrees is a big deal).So, answearing the question more directly, the rise and set phenomena occurs, as others have said, due to earth rotation. Since it rotates from west to east (from a referential observer outside earth with the head aligned with north-south axis, pointing north, looking to earth), the sun appear for us as rotating upon the sky from east to west. Imagine an ant in ball. Turn off the light and turn on a single lamp close to the ball. As you rotate the ball from west to east keeping the lamp position fixed, the lamp appears to the ant as rotating from east to west.