How long would it take to terraform Mars?
I'm going to follow the data provided in Robert Zubrin's very interesting book 'The Case For Mars'.Use a giant space mirror 120km across to warm the southern polar cap by 4K. After a few decades, it will completely sublimate, adding about 50-100mbar to the (originally 8mbar) atmosphere. This will warm the planet enough to partially outgas the regolith, but likely not completely. Pumping of around 1000tonnes of perfluoromethane, or CF4, into the atmosphere every day would guarantee enough of a green house effect to outgas the regolith.A 120 square km mirror would weigh 57600 tonnes assuming a space blanket density of 4g/sqm. This is about the same as a large ocean liner, but somewhat simpler. Automated production from an asteroid would be the energetically simplest way to go, though you could also railgun self deploying smaller mirrors from the Martian surface.The planet begins to warm, and a heat pulse travels downward, melting water. This process can be accelerated in a few polar regions with more space mirrors, creating a few wet lakes.Once the atmosphere is up to around 400mbar, the surface is warm enough in some places to seed with ammonia and methane producing bacteria, which help to thicken the atmosphere.Throughout this process, which will take 2-7 decades, convenient comets can be burned up in the atmosphere to increase the availability of water vapor.At this point, the atmosphere is warmish, wet, and plenty of pressure. It's still highly poisonous. Think Pandora. Breathing masks are necessary.Humans can't breath on the surface until there is at least 150mbar of oxygen. Build some factories to produce enough for plants, and they can make the rest. In the meantime, release as much nitrogen as you can find. Unless we have super efficient plants, however, this will take at least a thousand years. Another possibility is solar powered oxygen generators.As CO2 is stripped, more CFCs and other greenhouse gasses need to be produced to compensate.In summary, cold but not vacuum is pretty quick, warm, then warm and wet is still less than a century, but non poisonous is hundreds or thousands of years.
How possible is it to terraform Mars, and how long would it take?
Making a planet habitable involves several things. The planet must have sufficient atmospheric pressure. On Earth, one atmosphere equates to 100,000 pascals. The planet must have a proper amount of molecular oxygen to support proper respiration. On Earth, this is roughly 21%. The planet must have a temperature lifeforms can withstand, and one that allows for liquid surface water to exist. On Earth, this is 287 kelvin, or about 56 degrees Fahrenheit. Speaking of water, a planet must have sufficient water to support life.Mars has an atmospheric pressure caring from about 600 pascals at aphelion, to about 1100 pascals at perihelion. As the planet moves closer to the sun, the increased temperatures cause the dry ice located mostly at the southern ice cap to sublimate, thickening the atmosphere. We could construct a series or orbital mirrors to enhance this process, increasing atmospheric pressure by several thousand pascals. This would also melt a significant portion of the water ice in the northern ice cap, leading to a shallow ocean across much of the northern hemisphere. Into this ocean we could introduce billions of Cyanobacteria, which will break down the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into oxygen. We could also construct atmospheric factories on the surface to break down Martian minerals and further thicken the atmosphere. Due to the lower gravity and lack of magnetosphere, it is unlikely the Martian atmosphere will ever be as thick as that of Earth, but it should be possible to make it thick enough to support human life. At this point, roughly 1000 years have passed, and we can begin to build a Martian biosphere.Mars does not have any kind of significant magnetic field, so the atmosphere would have to be constantly replenished as it would be continually blown off by solar winds. Gravity on Mars is only about one-third that of Earth, so Mars-born humans would have a very difficult time adjusting to Earth gravity. Solar radiation would also be significantly more dangerous. It would take a significant investment of both time and resources, but Mars is the only planet we could feasibly terraform with near-future technologies (wishing the next few centuries). Theoretically, a human could walk on the surface of Mars unaided by the year 3000.
How possible would it be to terraform Mars into a habitable planet using the greenhouse effect?
Terraforming is the stuff of science fiction, and anything you can say about it is going to be speculation.To make Mars habitable, you'd have to establish an atmosphere with a reasonable pressure at the surface. Let's say, for the sake of argument, 75% of Earth's sea level mean pressure. That's equivalent to about 2100 meters (9000 feet) above sea level. I think most people could adapt to that pressure without too much trouble.That's still about a thousand times the pressure on Mars' surface. You'd have to add an incredible amount of air to the atmosphere. Mars would lose that air as it did before, but you'd have a long time before it became a problem. Of course, since you could supply the air in the first place, keeping the atmosphere topped up might not be such a problem. (It strikes me as a possible plot for a science fiction story: the artificial atmosphere is dissipating, and the technology to get more air has been lost. Hmm....)You'd asked about the greenhouse effect, but you get that by virtue of having an atmosphere. Earth, for example, has a much higher average surface temperature than an airless Earth would have.
Why is mars not habitable?
Whether Mars is habitable or not is a relative, rather than absolute term. Dr. Robert Zubrin, PhD makes the point in his book, "The Case for Mars" that ice age Europe and Asia were not "habitable" for naked stone age Africans when they first invaded these two continents about 50,000 years ago. But with the use of technology, i.e. fire, stone tools, animal skins for shoes and clothing, etc. humans were able to make these vast new continents "habitable", even in the throws of an ice age. The same is true for Mars. It is just that the level of technology to make Mars habitable will be much more advanced. But Mars is habitable, with the right application of technology. I can't wait.
Should we terraform mars ?
I believe we should terraform mars because the risk that invalid with sending a humans to mars. Because they may never come back. So if they are to go it should be at lest to terraform mars, i would not like to see any human take that risk with out a real good resin. Like making Mars habitable for farther mission to mars so their live would not be in vane in the cause, that they might die. yes it would be all most in possible to terraform Mars. that why they should not go tell they could possibly terraform Mars are lay the grounds for more mission to Mars so that the risk would be a lot more save. what do you thank? P.S. I would go to Mars if NASA would let me.
Is it possible to terraform Mars?
At our present level of understanding and technology the answer would be no. Mars needs a denser atmosphere to help hold in heat and provide enough pressure for liquid water to exist on the surface. Two things prevent this from happening. First Mars does not have enough mass (read gravity) to capture and hold onto lighter gases. Much of it has simply been heated by the Sun's energy until the atoms and molecules reach escape velocity and bleed off into space. Second, Mars has little internal heat and apparently no liquid mantle or core with which to generate a strong, unified magnetic field. It is the Earth's magnetic field that protects the upper atmosphere from solar energy and winds that would break in down. Mars lacks this protection. Without significant protection from the upper atmosphere UV radiation reaches the Martian surface. This would be very damaging to life as we know it. Until we solve these problems the best course of action is to stop abusing the Earth and learn to live together.
How can Venus be terraformed to be habitable for humans?
Well, you’d first need a method by which sulfuric acid can be safely sequestered. I don’t know what that method would be, but you’d need it. because otherwise, you’re only going to get so far with the next part:You need trees. Lots of them. And, just, all the water. You’ll need to generate a bunch of low-flying tree platforms to respirate all that CO2 and make it into O2. And as the exchange of CO2 and O2 and the sequestration of all that ridiculous acid, you’ll start to notice the surface temperature and pressure dropping. It’s not quite water time, but we’re getting close. See, our nitrox breathing air is a potent lifting gas in the Venusian (or Cytherian) atmosphere. As the O2/CO2 balance starts to shift and the levels of acid start to diminish, the tree pods will float lower and lower until they either reach a density that will no longer support the weight of the trees (nods) or you reach the surface (shakes head).THEN you need all the water. Make it rain! Literally!
Reasons for terraforming Mars?
i'm in debate and the resolution is terraforming mars should be nasa's top priority. i cant find any sources! i don't even know what i'm doing but i'm pro and needs reasons of why it would be good to terrform mars! please help i'm desperate!!