Catholic's, In The Catholic Jerusalem Bible At Exodus 20:4,5?
From the Catechism of the Catholic Church: 2132 The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes idols. Indeed, "the honor rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an image venerates the person portrayed in it." The honor paid to sacred images is a "respectful veneration," not the adoration due to God alone: "Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God incarnate. The movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends toward that whose image it is." See also paragraphs 2129-2131, which, in the Catechism, immediately precede the paragraph I posted. It also give citations for the quotes.
What are some movies that are set in ancient Persia or Egypt or somewhere like that?
I know of: Prince of Persia The Ten Commandments The Mummy (Series) Disney's Aladdin The Scorpion King Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat (Play) Can you tell me of others? Even if they aren't set in ancient times, just set in those places with that feel.
Was Troy a real city in ancient Greece?
As others have pointed out Troy was not a Greek city, rather it was located in Asia Minor, which is in modern day Turkey. And yes it is real.While modern scholars have thrown doubt on the historicity of the Trojan War, the Greeks themselves viewed it as history. For example, the Parian Marble lists the Trojan War along with other historical events and dates it to 1209/1208 BCE. Herodotus, Greece’s first historian, also treats the Trojan War as history (though Herodotus is well known for his embellishments and inaccuracies).While the story as Homer tells it is likely a highly embellished story, it is reasonable to conclude that this myth was founded in some real event. Troy was located near important trading routes to the Black Sea, so a conflict with the Greeks for economic reasons is possible.The mythos surrounding Troy has existed for millennia and many scholars and historical enthusiasts have tried to locate it throughout history. Those attempts became very focused in the nineteenth century, with several archeological sites being proposed as Troy’s true location. Then in 1868 the amateur archeologist Heinrich Schliemann began digging at a site in Turkey, which he (rather arbitrarily) declared was Troy. However, just like with his archeological finds in Mycenae Greece, Schliemann turned out to be quite lucky. The site he declared as Troy has held up to further arechological investigation and it is probable it is indeed the site of ancient Troy.The actual walls of Troy. Source: Troy - WikipediaUnfortunately Schliemann was an over enthusiastic amateur and in his desire to dig down to the Homeric level of the city did incredible damage to the archeological site. There's a lot we could have learned about the city that now we will never know.Digging at the site is still on going and more knowledge will be available in the future.
When it comes to cities that had walls, like Rome or Troy, how were they designed and built?
I’ll be addressing two of my favorite examples of ancient architecture and the creativity and ingenuity of ancient peoples through both Rome and Constantinople.RomeRome is a city surrounded by 7 hills, which were all becoming over-crowded. As the original inner wall of Rome became outgrown by the increasing size of the empire, they realized they had to better protect their people. So what did Rome do? They built a massive concrete-reinforced, stone/brick wall that formed with the surrounding hills and the river nearby.The wall nowaydays wouldn't be anything special, but the ingenuity and natural design was truly something to behold.They most likely just used human labor and skilled craftsman to stack bricks for most of the construction. Rome had early construction systems such as winches and pulleys, but hands-on labor was generally their preferred method of building.This is why their walls are still in such great shape today, despite 2000 years of invasions, poor leadership, and destructive wars. Rome used solid materials to form with the landscape that surrounded them to make a city that could shine above all others and protect its people from their enemies. It was certainly a magnificent feat for Rome.ConstantinopleIn case you can't tell, that's 3 walls right there. The Byzantines(Eastern Roman Empire) valued their capitol more than their empire and if not for this wall, the Byzantine Empire would have been a mere footnote in history.As you can see, the Byzantines were prepared for any land invasion. Even besieging the capitol was a hopeless endeavor for much of the city’s history and the city was only conquered after a raiding party of Byzantine soldiers forgot to lock the gate(yah a bit of an underwhelming end). The city even proved to withstand the world’s largest cannon for days before the walls had been weakened.However, that's not all… 3/4 of the city perimeter was water and the city was susceptible to naval siege. So in order to protect themselves from naval forces they devised another ingenious defense. While their sea walls protected their harbors from enemy fire, they also had massive chains that spanned across the water which would tear apart any vessels that dared get near. For all intensive purposes, they had made a city that would be impregnable until the invention of the cannon, and even then it was a long and costly endeavor to win with Byzantine defenses and Greek fire to fight their foes off. A truly devastating city to capture.
What was the capital of the Ancient Israel kingdom?
The Ancient Kingdom of Israel was formed after the split with Judea in about 925 BC and the Assyrians destroyed it later. http://angelmessage.org/judahs_sceptre/part1ch07.html
During both the Ancient and Medieval Ages, were the fortified cities (or fortresses) defenders normally the losers in a siege battle?
Almost 70% of all sieges were won by the defenders.There is a reason people payed fortunes to build high castle walls, they were great for defense.You only hear about sieges that are won because they are unique, like the siege of Jerusalem, Constantinople, Troy, Rome, Acre, Tenochtitlan, etc.
How many people died in the Trojan War?
There have been plenty of archaeological evidence that Troy actually existed, and a few of the 7 city layers (different periods in time when the city flourished) have the marks of extensive warfare. So it is at least somewhat likely the war actually happened, although it might not be like it was described in the Iliad. About the number of people dying, that will be much harder to estimate. The few sources available give pretty high numbers, but given the norm for that period of time, i think they need to be taken with a grain of salt. You could assume a long siege with about 25,000 people on the attacker side and maybe as many as 10000 inside plus 50, 000 or so inhabitants of the city. Again given the sources, you could assume somewhere close to 40% mortality on the attacker side (including disease etc.) and about 90% on the defender side with close to 25% of the inhabitants being massacred upon during the sack of Troy. So i would estimate somewhere in the vicinity of 31,000 casualties. But then again this is an educated guess at best.
2. The defining elements of civilization in the Neolithic period include all of the following except?
2: A. 5: D. 6: C. 8: B. 9: B. 10: D. 11: C. 12: A. 13: D. 16: D. 18: A. 19: B. 20: D. 21: D. 22: A.