Biochemical Oxygen Demands Question?
I wonder how you have been taught what the Carbon based material is. I suspect but have no idea that it is some sort of hydrocarbon complex that looks like CxHy + (x + y/2) O2 ==> xCO2 + yH2O where CxHy slowly degrages I don't know enough about environmental biochemistry to go beyond this. Maybe its even this simple C + O2 ==> CO2 but I doubt it. Anyway since you are in chemistry, you might clarrify what BOD means or what you know about the plastic. Edit === As near as I can tell, from what you've added and what I've read elsewhere, about the only thing you can do is assume that you have Carbon present (3 tones of it) and Oxygen 34 tons of that. I would guess, since there is no other thing that I can look at, that the simple formula is the only one you can go with. It is a crude, very crude estimate of just how much oxygen will be used up. Also I have found that when questions come from on line courses, hidden somewhere is a conversion factor which you are to use. However I will ignore that. You can look at what I write and if it all seems like nonsense, you can look for another answer. convert the 3 tones into kg 2.2 pounds = 1 kg 2000 pounds = x x = 2000/2.2 = 909.1 kg 1 ton = 909.1 kg 3 ton = 2727.3 kg x = 2727.3 kg * 1000 grams/kg = 2727300 grams 1 mol of carbon = 12 grams x mol of carbon = 2727300 grams x = 2727300/12 = 227272 moles. Now you need that many mols of oxygen to decompose the organic carbon 1 mol of oxygen = 32 grams 227272 moles of oxygen = x x = 32 * 227272 = 7272727 grams of oxygen. x = 7273 kg. Now we have to get this into tons 909.1 kg = 1 ton 7273 kg = x ton x = 7273/909.1 = 7.9999 tons which is about 8 tons. There is enough oxygen present, BUT there has a 25% drain on the total amount of oxygen that could be used to feed fish or do whatever else the ecosystem demands. This may not be satisfactory, but it is a feasible guess. I hope you find this. Email whether or not it makes sense. You might also look for a conversion factor.
What activity in which oxygen demands are low enough that the activity can be continued?
Sleeping. The rate of oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer is less than half the amount when compared to awakestate walking.
How do muscles continue to get energy during high levels of activity when there is not enough oxygen?
Well, I was going to say that muscles can't function without oxygen, but looks like your panel of "experts" has something far more logical than anything I could ever imagine.
How do muscles continue to get energy during high levels of activity when there is not enough oxygen?
Your muscles use Anaerobic Respiration or more commonly fermentation of Glucose. Glucose ---> Lactic Acid + Energy (ATP) C6H12O6 ---> 2C3H6O3 + 2 ATP The energy released is about 120kJ per mole Glucose. Lactic Acid is produced as a byproduct as well as Energy. Should levels of activity continue past your glucose reserves the body will start to feed off of itself and consume muscle . This can be reduced by replacing glucose stores during workouts, i.e. sports drinks that are high in glucose and electrolytes.
What does high biochemical oxygen demand indicate?
Oxygen demand is an important parameter for determining the amount of organic pollution in water. High influent BOD requires extensive treatment to provide the oxygen necessary to break down the water's organic contents.
What happens when cells are deprived of oxygen?
You want the simple answer or the biology answer? Simple answer: They die. Biology answer: Oxygen is essential to metabolize glucose into carbon dioxide, recharging ATP in the process. ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) is basically the fuel that your body uses to do stuff. ATP powers your muscles, your brain, everything. When the body uses it, a phosphorous atom gets snapped off, and it turns into ADP (adenosine di-phosphate). You breathe oxygen so you can burn glucose and recharge it. Now - if there's no oxygen, your body has to do something more drastic. It needs that ATP, right? Otherwise your brain and heart will shut down, and you'll die. So, it takes that glucose and ferments it without oxygen, which makes a much smaller amount of ATP. It also creates lactic acid. If too much acid gets created, then the cell dies. When the heart and brain die, you die. Fermentation also happens when you can't breathe in enough oxygen to sustain your activities - for example, when you're running the 400-meter dash. You can't breathe in enough oxygen to do all the activity you're doing, so the body gets the rest of it with fermentation. When enough lactic acid gets created, you get a cramp. That's also why when you stop running and start breathing normally again, the cramp goes away - the returning oxygen makes it so that the lactic acid can be removed and normal metabolism can begin again.
What is the effect of enzyme concentration on enzyme activity? Explain how enzyme activity changes as enzyme c
Enzymes are proteins which can speed up chemical reactions. If you are going to compare a reaction without an enzyme to that with the aid of an enzyme, you'll get a ratio of 1 is to a million. Enzymes are more or less substrate specific. Meaning they only bind to the correct substrate. In the case of enzyme denaturation, the substrate-enzyme specificity is lost thus hampering chemical reaction or slowing chemical reaction. pH and temperature can both denature enzymes causing them to loss their function. Enzyme concentration is directly proportional to the speed of a reaction; the more enzymes, the faster the reaction. Substrate concentration could also affect the action of enzymes. If there are less substrates available for enzyme binding, the reaction is slower. Activators are molecules which activates enzymes. Meaning if there are more activators, there are more enzymes which will result to faster reaction. The presence of inhibitors will mean slow reaction since the action of enzymes will be inhibited by inhibitors. Another thing, the presence of coenzymes and cofactors could also affect speed of reaction. Either it will enhance or inhibit. Hope this helps... God Bless..
Why do we need oxygen?
Use and application is : Breathing gas and supplement ""Uptake of oxygen from the air is the essential purpose of respiration, so oxygen supplementation has found use in medicine (as oxygen therapy). People who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized aeroplanes sometimes have supplemental oxygen supplies; the reason is that increasing the proportion of oxygen in the breathing gas at low pressure acts to augment the inspired oxygen partial pressure nearer to that found at sea-level. A home oxygen concentrator in situ in an emphysema patient's house. The model shown is the DeVILBISS LT 4000. A home oxygen concentrator in situ in an emphysema patient's house. The model shown is the DeVILBISS LT 4000. A notable application of oxygen as a very low-pressure breathing gas, is in modern spacesuits, where use of nearly pure oxygen at a total ambient pressure of about one third normal, results in normal blood partial pressures of oxygen. This trade-off of breathing gas content and needed pressure is important for space applications, because the issue of flexible spacesuits working at Earth sea-level pressures remains a technological challenge of aerospace technology. Oxygen, as a supposed mild euphoric, has a history of recreational use (see oxygen bar). However, the reality of a pharmacological effect is doubtful, a metabolic boost being the most plausible explanation. Controlled tests of high oxygen mixtures in diving (see nitrox) and other activities, even at higher than normal pressures, demonstrated no particular effects on humans other than promotion of an increased tolerance to aerobic exercise. In the 19th century, oxygen was often mixed with nitrous oxide to temper its analgesic effect. A stable 50% gaseous mixture (Entonox) is commonly used in medicine today as an analgesic. However, the common basic anaesthetic mixture is 30% oxygen with 70% nitrous oxide; the pain-suppressing effects, obviously, are due to the nitrous oxide and not to oxygen.""
Describe oxygen debt?
oxygen debt is "where the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply". In practical terms this means that your body is working hard, you are breathing in a lot of oxygen but you cannot absorb enough to cope with the level of activity. If this happens, your body is mainly utilising the anaerobic energy system and as a result, lactic acid builds up as an undesirable waste product. This system can only be sustained for about 60 seconds (depending on the individual) before severe fatigue sets in and you would have to take time to recover. The amount of oxygen "owed" to the body in order to recover is called the oxygen debt. The amount of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue during recovery from vigorous exercise. During vigorous exercise the body needs a lot more energy. It gets this by breathing in deeper and faster and rushing the oxygen to the muscles in dilated blood vessels. This extra oxygen is then used to release more energy, needed to meet the higher level of demand. Soon a point is reached when the body cannot breathe any faster or harder, and aerobic respiration alone cannot meet the enhanced energy demands. So how do muscle cells get the extra energy they need? They get it by respiring anaerobically. But anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid, which accumulates in the muscles and causes muscle fatigue and cramps. To avoid damage to cells, lactic acid has to be broken down to carbon dioxide and water immediately the exercise has finished. This is an oxidisation reaction, and requires oxygen. This extra oxygen needed to neutralise the harmful effects of anaerobic respiration is called an oxygen debt. In order to get the extra oxygen to 'pay back' the debt, the body continues to breathe deeply for some time after vigorous activity has ceased. When all the lactic acid in the muscles is broken down the oxygen debt has been repaid and normal aerobic respiration resumes. One measure of a person's fitness is how quickly their breathing and pulse return to normal after exercise. This is because in a fit person aerobic respiration is more efficient, so they build up less of an oxygen debt while exercising, and need less extra oxygen to breakdown any lactic acid in their muscles resulting from anaerobic respiration.
Can a person walk on Mars with only an oxygen mask, ordinary clothes and no space suit? What will happen if they do?
I really like Luis Villazon’s answer, with one caveat: In general, oxygen masks cover nose and mouth, sometimes eyes. But rarely ears. There is a connection from your throat to the inside of your eardrum. This will be at the pressure you are breathing. The pressure on the outside is that of Mars.There is a fairly range of estimates for the pressure differential eardrums can withstand, but the number seems to be around 5 PSI. Your mileage will vary both because of genetics and your health. This is above the required oxygen pressure if you want to remain conscious while walking (about 4.3 PSI) but below the pressure required for heavy running (5.1 PSI). Given the variability in pressures in the literature, you are running a real risk of bursting an eardrum if your mask covers only your face.Bursting an eardrum is a Bad Thing. It is known for being very painful and can make you dizzy enough to throw up. Throwing up an an oxygen mask is also something to be avoided. I am guessing, though, that bursting one eardrum is enough to lower the pressure to avoid bursting the other. This is probably a good thing, which I base mostly on the feeling that bursting *both* eardrums is almost surely a Really Bad Thing. I will leave the exercise of supplying enough oxygen to maintain sufficient pressure to walk while blowing oxygen out both ears to someone who would probably scare me if I met them.So, go for the neck seal. Just don’t shut of blood flow to your brain. Really, Really, Bad Thing. Enjoy your visit to Mars and be sure to stop by the gift shop on the edge of Valles Marineris. Ice cream (real). Fossils (fake). Telescopes (better than you expect—I sell them at a loss ‘cause of all the crap my parents got us). Cheesy comic books (great selection, some of them by Martians!)