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What Are The Effects Of Aldehydes And Carboxylic Acids When They Are Present In The Human Body

Why does formic acid have higher toxicity than other primary carboxylic acids?

Formic acid has such a structure which allows it to react like an aldehyde. You can recognise the CHO group. Aldehydes are much more reactive than carboxylic acids and they can easily be oxidised. Toxicity arises from interaction with structures in the organism which when altered stop functioning properly.Further, the dissociation constant is higher than that of other carboxylic acids as hydrogen atoms have zero inductive effect. When there is a hydrocarbon chain instead of the hydrogen atom, the polarity of the O-H bond is lower due to the positive inductive effect of the chain. This means that formic acid has a lower pH than, say, acetic acid at equal concentrations.

How do carboxylic acids get transported across the cell membrane?

Carboxylic acids are a diverse group of organic compounds which are unified (and defined) by the presence of a -COOH group (below). As weak organic acids, carboxylic acids partially dissociate in aqueous solutions. This means that they can exist in different states: namely charged and uncharged. Above is the uncharged form of the carboxylic acid, with the charged state looking like this:Note the loss of a proton and the subsequent development of a negative charge.The charge state of the carboxylic acid depends on the pH of its environment and on the acid pKa, and this is an important consideration for understanding how and why they cross biological membranes.Like for transport of many different molecules, the transport mechanisms of carboxylic acids can be divided into passive and active transport. I will outline the details of each type of transport and discuss the implications for the cell below:PassiveSimple and/or facilitated diffusion through a membrane channel or permease. As uncharged carboxylic acids are lipid-soluble, this is the main mechanism for uncharged carboxylic acids to cross the cell membrane. This means that carboxylic acids outside the cell (lower pH) are uncharged so can easily diffuse across the lipid membrane. Once in the cell (higher pH), the carboxylic acid becomes charged, and therefore is unable to  diffuse back, thus leading to an accumulation of carboxylic acids within the cell.The protons which are released contribute to the acidification of the cytoplasm and this plays an important role in several metabolic pathways.ActiveThere are two distinct systems for this:Pumps which are powered by ATP and transport the caroxylic acid out of the cell. These are associated with stress response as they displace the charged form of the accumulated acid. Permeases, which are usually coupled to proton transport and transport carboxylic acid into the cell. These are associated with certain metabolic processes that use carboxylic acids, so bring them into the cell when required. Passive and active transport of carboxylic acids. Image source: Transport of carboxylic acids in yeastsAs you might imagine, there are many, many types of each of these transport mechanisms, and the interplay between them are tightly regulated to control the amount of carboxylic acid within the cell.

How do fatty acid and lipid differ?

fatty acid makes up lipid.
so lipid is made of fatty acid and some other stuff(maybe carbohydrate i dont remember).
i learned this stuff last year and i dont remeber a thing.. LOL

AP Bio question about carbon ?

Carbon has a valence of 4 which makes it capable of entering into 4 covalent bonds.

This situation allows carbon to form many different chemical compounds. The following are variations in which carbon may form different chemical compounds:

1). Length of the carbon skeleton may differ.

2). Branching of the carbon skeleton

3). The number of double bonds may differ ( C=C-C-C, C=C=C-C ).

4). The molecular structure may be in a ring form.


Chemical compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas is called an isomer.

There are 3 types of isomers:

a). Structural: These isomers differ from others due to the differing covalent arrangements of the atoms.

b). Geometric: These isomers contain the same covalent arrangement but different spatial arrangements. The double bonds make the molecule rigid which prevents atomic rotation.

c). Optical: These isomers are mirror images of one another. There are right and left handed versions of these compounds. The asymmetrical carbon, this is the carbon that is attached to 4 different groups, revolves causing the isomer to occur. The left handed isomer usually functions in nature, while the right has no use or can cause problems in the organism using it.

Functional groups are certain groups of atoms attached to the carbon skeleton. This area is usually on the end of the molecule. This region is the focus of most chemical reactions. These groups change the activity and function of the molecule they are added to.

1. Hydroxyl R- OH makes molecule polar and produces an alcohol.

2. Carbonyl R=O produces compounds known as ketones and aldehydes

3. Carboxyl R=O and OH forms organic acids (carboxylic acids: formic, acetic, etc.).

4. Amino R- N + 1 charge, usually basic, acts as a good buffer.

5. Sulfhydral R- S-H thiols, stabilizes protein molecular structures.

6. Phosphate R- O- P- O plus 2 more Oxygens attached to the P. energy storage that can be passed on from one molecule to another by the transfer of the group.

I wiped hydrogen peroxide on my skin, why did it smell like vinegar?

According to this paper, aldehydes form a majority of the volatile organic compounds emanated from the human skin :Analyses of volatile organic compounds from human skinHydrogen peroxide [math]H_{2}O_{2}[/math] is a strong oxidizer. It can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids and can cleave C-C multiple bonds. I believe that it is such reactions which are producing Ethanoic acid, [math]CH_{3}COOH[/math], the carboxylic acid which when diluted produces vinegar.

Which type of organic compound is responsible for your suffering?

B. and the simplies one in this class

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