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What Is Causation .meaning

How can one explain the disparity in IQ averages between different ethnicities?

I’m going to take a different tack, from some of the other answers.IQ is a synthetic, statistical benchmark for intelligence.If a disparity exists, there’s several potential causes that you might examine:Do different ethnicities score differently depending on how the questions are written. Variability based on syntax.Do different ethnicities score differently on the different components that make up the IQ test. Variability based on score aggregation.When the test was designed, was it designed to test intelligence across ethnicities. Some areas/types of questions may not be diagnostic within one ethnicity, and therefore are omitted from the test and therefore alter the apparent IQ for all other ethnicities.This is only the problems you have within the test questions themselves. Then you have to look at the aggregation methodology.Does the study account for other factors (early IQ score disparity studies didn’t look a things like socio-economic factors). False Correlation.Does the study use randomisation, and comparable populations from multiple groups. Selection bias.The problem with this question, is that it’s incredible emotive (on both sides). And when scientists are too focused on trying to prove their point, and not find the truth, you get bad science.So in short, my answer is that I’d be fairly confident in saying that a disparity may exist, and having nothing to do with differing actual intelligence. There is a lot of sources of uncertainty.

What is the English equivalent of the Hindi phrase "nas pe nas chadna?"

Muscle spasm induced cramps. These cramps can often lock toes or otherwise temporarily disable movement. The causation is variously understood to be related to dehydration or electrolyte depletion, or neuromuscular control. It can occur in regular people as well as elite athletes. The Wikipedia page has more but you asked a language related question so I will just leave this here:

Can a person who has no religion be moral?

By “moral” do you mean “doing what you believe to be right” or “doing what you have been told God wants you to do, regardless of whether you agree with it”?If the former, I’d say that of course non-religious people can be moral. There are billions of non-religious people on the planet, and quite a large number of them treat their neighbors with respect, act kindly toward strangers, try to avoid cheating or harming others, etc.If the former, probably not, since a morality based on a belief in an infallible God will often lead otherwise “good” people to commit acts of atrocity against their fellow men, and those who lack the belief in that God will resist behaving that way.Of course, this isn’t to say that all religious people are monsters who kill, rape, enslave, discriminate, etc., because they have been commanded to so by their God. In fact, many religious people have a sensible amount of the first definition of morality and thereby pick and choose which of their God’s commandments they actually want to follow. That’s why not a lot of Christians or Jews go around stoning homosexuals despite clear commandments to do so. Or have slaves. Or treat women as second-class citizens. They act as good people despite the moral code of their religion, not because of it. And if religious folks can be good despite their religion’s moral code, then so can the non-religious folks.One question I always ask of those who claim that atheists can’t be “good” or “moral” without a belief in God is whether they would suddenly go out and start raping, robbing, killing, etc., if they one day stopped believing in God. Sadly, some admit they would. But most acknowledge they wouldn’t.

What is the meaning of name, 'Nikhil'?

Nikhil (Sanskrit: निखिल) is a Sanskrit word. It is frequently used in Nepali, Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, and other Sanskrit-derived languages. It means a man who is “Complete” or “Universal” and “Resilient”. It refers ‘Complete’ as without boundary. Whereas ‘Complete’ with boundary is described by name Akhil. The name may also refer to ‘Perfection’ or ‘One who is perfect in all aspects’.The literal translation for Nikhil in Sanskrit means “One who is free from bondage or the obstacles imposed by Prakruti (the operative aspect of Bramha) viz. Time, Space and Causation.Sanskrit fragmentation of the word yields: Ni (without) + Kh (sky or boundary) + L (agreed or liked). It can sometimes refer to “Perfection” or “Perfectionism”. It also means “Complete” or “Whole”. It also refers to Lord Brahma,Vishnu and also Mahesh.Also the word “Nikhil” came in old ayurveda samhitas like Sushruta Samhita, where it denotes the meaning “entire”.