What is the contribution of the Turks to the global civilisation?
Young turk, there are some works of Aristotelis and other filosophers that are only known to us from Arabic manuscripts.The arcitectural achievements of Spain (palaces), that Arabs have left, show two different sides of Arabic contribution along with the manuscripts of Algebra, Astronomy and other. Not to mention that our numbers 1,2,3 .... are arabic (indian in fact). Their contribution is real beyond any dought.
Where did sailors get drinking water during very long voyages in the times of Columbus?
First some numbers, though approximations all, and only for the first expedition: Length of the three ships, about 50 feet on deck each. Number of crew on each ship, about 30. Time at sea: 3 days from Lisbon to the Canaries; about 34 days from Canaries to first landfall in the Bahamas. It took longer for the ships to return to Europe, but not extraordinarily longer.Some considerations regarding time at sea. Bathing, probably none, but that would have been not much different from standard hygiene in those days anywhere in Europe. The smell? Probably pretty awful, but a term from Febreeze commercials helps here - from personal experience I can verify that “nose blind” is a fact. I doubt that the sailors would have noticed, let alone been nauseated by, the smell.Water: carried in casks aboard, and replenished upon making landfall as well as at sea whenever there was a storm. 35 days’ supply of fresh water wouldn’t have been dreadful - 900 gallons of water, perhaps, carried in 50 gallon casks. It would have served as ballast as well. I would expect that wine and rum would have also been carried, both of which, mixed with water to make it drinkable, could reasonably disinfect the water. Moreoever, I think that sailors of that time (and perhaps the general population) had a more robust immune system than modern day people considering the general poor sanitation of the times.One shouldn’t try to compare a 50′ modern sailing yacht to a 15th century 50′ Caravel. The ~ 7′ draft of a caravel would mean perhaps 3,500 cubic feet of cargo space below the water line because all of its draft would be hull below water line. A 50′ modern sailing yacht might have 1,200 cubic feet below the water line because its ballast is an external keel and perhaps 1 foot of hull below the water line. Huge difference.
Christians: Bible says the earth is flat?
So Atheist are you telling me a circle has four corners or are you not understanding the word of God?
How was the religion and economy in europe 1600-1700?PLZ HELP?
The religion was Catholic in France, Spain, Portugal and Greece. In The Netherlands and in England it was Protestant. Germany was not yet a nation, but numerous states, some of which were Catholic and some Protestant (Lutheran). This led to tensions and war. The Catholic inclined Stuart kings of England looked to France for inspiration - after Charles I had been executed, his son, the future Charles II took refuge in France. When James II ascended the throne as a Catholic there were tensions between him and Parliament which led to his eventual overthrow and the invitation to the Protestant William of Orange and his wife Mary to become joint monarchs. France began to take a harder line against Protestants during the century with Louis XIV repealing the Edict of Nantes which allowed religious toleration. Generally the century, throughout Europe, was not noted for toleration anywhere with constant conflict between Catholic and.Protestant. I'll leave someone else to comment on economy.